The structure of the foot is incredibly complex. 26 bones are connected by more than 33 joints and held together by over 100 ligaments. 20 muscles with strong tendons keep the foot agile, as well as steady.
The foot’s skin, muscles and tendons are connected to numerous nerves, hereby enabling the foot’s owner to sense pressure, muscle and tendon strain and temperature. This makes the foot a sensitive organ that recognizes uneven surfaces, can differentiate between soft and hard surfaces, and can tell warm or from cold, sharp from blunt. Blood vessels supply the foot with oxygen and nutrients.
Over recent years, considerable progress has been made in the standardizsed diagnosis and treatment of shoulder complaints. Superficially similar complaints may have various true causes; however, due to ever more complex sports activities pursued by patients and their increased activity in older age, the causes and triggers need to be identified and treated appropriately. The ultimate goal of the treatment is to have a functioning shoulder rather than merely to eliminate pain.
There has been a profound shift in the surgical treatment of spinal disorders over the last years. It is comparable to the triumph of joint replacement in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. In spine therapy, this includes minimally invasive catheter and probe technologies, endoscopic procedures – so-called keyhole surgery techniques – as well as the implantation of vertebral disc endoprostheses in the lumbar and cervical spine.
Wear of the larger joints due to osteoarthritis, especially in old age, due to rheumatoid arthritis or posttraumatic does not only result in debilitating and constant pain, but also heavily restricts patients’ mobility and also limits their quality of life.
The knee is the largest joint in the human body and, in terms of its mechanics, the most complex. We flex and extend our knees millions of times during the course of lifetime. Accordingly, the knee is put under heavy strain. By a certain age it has often suffered a certain amount of wear; osteoarthritis, as it is called, can lead to intense and continuous pain.
In terms of function, the elbow joint is made up of three bones that are flexibly joined: flexion and extension of the lower arm is controlled by the interaction of a hinge joint with a ball joint. Furthermore, the pivot joint allows for lower arm hand rotation. The elbow is a protruding part of the ulna and, together with the hunerus, forms a hinge joint. This ensures that the lower arm cannot bend backwards.
Hand and foot disorders have always been a particular challenge for orthopaedic doctors. The articulated joints are numerous and the demand placed on hands and feet is very high. Hand surgery comprises conservative as well as surgical measures to treat hand disorders and injuries, as well as deformities. Hand operations are highly complex and should only be carried out by specifically trained, expert surgeons with an additional qualification in ‚hand surgery’.
The upper ankle is made up of 3 bones – the calf bone (fibula), the shinbone (tibia) and the anklebone (talus), which are stabilized by a capsular-/ ligament-complex. Due to heavy strain, injuries to the ligaments as well as broken bones are relatively common in this part of the body. Depending on the type of injury, it can be treated using conservative or surgical interventions.